Competição Nacional de Oratória 2017 – EPSC no British Council Lisboa

Foto de Sílvia Ramadas

Aqui podem ler-se os três discursos que competiram com mais de 30 alunos de outras escolas nacionais, públicas e privadas, no evento dinamizado pela ESU, English Speaking Union, organização de que a nossa escola é membro, organizado no British Council em Lisboa. Atividade que surge no âmbito do Clube de Debate, este concurso tem o objetivo de promover competências linguístico-discursivas expressas em língua inglesa. Este ano o tema aglutinador foi “Peace is not the absence of war”, expressão retirada de um discurso de Martin Luther King.

O nível e a qualidade dos discursos apresentados por todas as escolas foi muitíssimo elevado e, apesar de ser apenas o segundo ano em que a nossa escola se vê representada com 3 alunas do 12º A -CT, vimos 2 alunas passarem ao grupo de finalistas. Inês Pereirinha e Ana Carolina Marques integraram os 10 finalistas, dando provas do seu comprometimento, saberes, capacidades analíticas, desenvolvimento de ideias e articulação do conhecimento, literacia no uso da informação e excelência.

Texto de Sílvia Ramadas

A Cold Truth

Truth – a statement proven to be or accepted as true – we accept multiple truths, such as the truth about gravity, about the shape of Earth, and many others. However, there are truths that we don’t accept… and today I’m here to talk about a cold truth.
In my 17 years of life, and I know that they’re not too many, I’ve never heard on television “Peace is finally a reality”. On the contrary, I always hear news such as “Syrian Civil War is not close to an end”, “Terrorist attack killed more 34 people”, “Mother killed her son”, and the list goes on and on… As we all know this is not a sign of peace, actually it is a sign of a absence of peace.
The human race has been on Earth for 12 thousand years, we have fought to achieve peace in many ways, we created triets, the universal declaration of the human rights, we even created a universal day of peace. However, despite all the efforts, we did not achieve peace.
The fact is, how can we achieve this goal if we don’t fully understand what it means? Well, peace is not just the absence of war, but it consists in a positive state where social justice and brotherhood in all kinds exist. Just like colours have different shades, peace has different shapes… For example, back in the sixties, the peace movement in America was basically the idea that if the Vietnam war could stop, there would be peace. If we look at the numbers, the rates of violence in America have only increased… Not only that, we may recall the cold war, where, in fact, there was no real war, but there was tension between countries that created an environment where it didn’t exist peace…
In Africa most political conflits are caused by the race for the economical power… They are caused because of the people that are in power. Most of their politicians are selfish or greedy… They don’t care about the people, they care about the money that they can make, no matter how much it costs… They don’t understand that all the money in the world can’t pay a human life.
The problem that we have in our hands is that we are all human… We are all selfish, greedy, we are not perfect… and we will always make bad things to others, no matter how hard we try… And that’s why we will never achieve a complete version of peace.
We may think… “ok, global peace is impossible, but what about individual peace?” Well, in my point of view, individual peace is relative. We can not feel a complete peace, when the world is not in peace… How can we feel safe, when the world is unsafe? How can we sleep at night when we don’t know if we are safe? How can we lay over in our beds, and think that millions of people have no bed to sleep in? In a world like this, how can we be trully in peace?
For me, that’s impossible… And that’s why I’m here today… because like my grandmother used to say “A cold truth is better than a swet lie”. Maybe, my presence here today, change your ways of thinking… maybe you will leave this place today, and work for a better version of yourself, for a better version of the world.
According to scientists the human race may be extinct in 100 years from now… 12 thousand years have already passed and we didn’t make any progress. Will we be able to win in this race against time and that way change this cold truth?

Ana Carolina Marques 12º A (discurso finalista)

Not everything is what it seems!

Good morning ladies and gentlemen,
We are on the third month of 2017 so, I think it´s safe to say that the year did not start that long ago, It feels like it was yesterday that all of us, women were in our sparkling dresses and men in their suits counting down the seconds to get in the new year, but it also feels like it was yesterday that all of us were laying in our beds looking at the ceiling thinking  nostalgically about the year that was about to get to its end, the happy moments, those not so happy, all the amazing people that got into our lives and the not so amazing ones that happily left, but at the end of all of this very deep thinking session and now I am going to talk about something that truly happened to me, I thought “Sure there was some people that I came across this year that I did not like at all, but besides all that I did not have conflicts with anyone” and then, the thought that I was in peace popped into my head. What I did not know was that my year had been an iceberg and I was only thinking about what was on the surface of the sea.
So, later that day, I was talking to my sister and I remembered telling her that I thought  that I was a very pacific person, I think you could say I was very proud of myself, and right after I told her that she asked why and that´s when I poorly answered “I had no conflicts with anyone thoroughout the year” and she strongly replied “didn´t you have concerns that made you lose sleep at night, didn´t the thought of future take all of your hunger away, are you completely proud of yourself and everything you´ve done thoroughout the year, didn´t you keep problems to yourself because you were afraid to be judged, didn´t people laugh on you face because they say you are a nerd and have a sharp voice?” I was very shaken, all that I could think about was “That happened to me the whole year” and that´s when I came to a very important conclusion, being in peace means much more than the absence of conflicts with others, it means being stress-free, it means being accepted by society and not being judged, it is to seek forgiveness, not revenge towards others, it is to completely accept and be proud of who you are.
I decided to tell all of you my little story because I believe it´s possible to establish a parallel between it and the world. Like I am simply discriminated for having a sharp voice and for being a nerd, there´s millions of people that are discriminated for their racial and sexual preferences, like I lost my hunger thinking about the unknown future I have in front of me, millions lose their hunger because they are afraid to go outside and get robbed because it´s not safe, like I can´t sleep when I go to bed concerned about certain problems I have, millions awake at night thinking on how they can escape a life of slavery, including children, like I cry over some bad news I received, millions cry because they are abused everyday . With all of this I pretend to emphasize two aspects, firstly, my problems shouldn´t even be called problems when compared with some people´s concerns and secondly, we DO NOT LIVE IN A PEACEFUL WORLD! Peace is not merely the absence of war, it is a world where there is no civil disturbance, it is a world where everyone feels safe and has their human rights respected, it is a world where everyone gets along harmoniously, it is a world where everyone is afraid to be who they truly are, it is a world where everyone is free and able to express their ideas, peace ladies and gentleman is where no one is disrespected for being different!
To conclude, as John F. Kennedy once said “Peace is a daily, a weekly, a monthly process, gradually changing opinions, slowly eroding old barriers, quietly building new structures” and I couldn´t agree more, I won´t say it will be easy to achieve peace, but I truly believe it´s possible yet to do so every single person from the seven billion that live in this planet has to help, no one can be left behind neither you or me, it´s mandatory that we all walk on the same direction, we all have to work for it because…

UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL.

Thank you,

Inês Pereirinha 12ºA (discurso finalista)

In a White-painted world

Good morning ladies and gentlemen,
I have always enjoyed a good story! And my grandmother was a master at recounting them, giving life and meaning to every word and every character…
I remember with fondness the fairies, witches, princes and princesses, but I never forgot the story of the White King. This king promised to offer a great prize to the artist who could paint peace. There were many competitors … But among those, two artists stood out. The first painted something very calm. A perfect mirror reflecting placid mountains that surrounded him and above them was a very blue sky with light white clouds. The second artist, also painted mountains, but these were rough and stripped of vegetation, over them there was a storm sky with sparks and thunder. Nevertheless, when the king watched closely, he noticed that behind a waterfall was a small branch that grew in the crevice of a rock, and in the middle of the noise created by the violent waterfall, he discovered a nest and a bird. Perfect peace!
Which do you think was the chosen painting?
The king chose the second one!… But why? He explained: “Peace does not mean to be in a place without noise, without problems, without hard work or without pain.” Peace means having the knowledge to choose with ability the moment to work, to build, to face problems and to find harmony.
I did not want to compare the king in my grandmother’s stories to our leaders and the global situation, in which we find ourselves. A situation, where racism and xenophobia are rapidly growing in Europe; where violence is deeply rooted in Latin America; where deadly clashes in the Middle East continue and where millions of people on the Asian continent are being affected by economic, social and political inequalities.
This reminded me of the great leader Martin Luther King and one of his sayings: “Have flown the air like birds and swum the sea like fishes, but have yet to learn the simple act of walking the earth like brothers.”
And I thought, “When will all this end?” Then I remembered the little bird, in the middle of the storm, hidden in the crevice of a rock. Getting him out of there would have been a brutal, but beneficial challenge, which would have lead him on path of freedom.
Each of us should follow the example of that little bird … Challenge yourself and do not be afraid to overcome barriers and build bridges of trust and loyalty around you. I am counting on each of you to build a world, where the colours of each of the continents merge into one, where the white that results from this fusion will paint peace in all nations.

Do you still remember the White king? Like him, me too would like to, one day assign a great prize to all men and women, who would unite to build a world where there was justice for all … A world, where freedom and union reigned and never lacked work, bread or water.
From here on forward, I want us to believe that nothing is impossible! … If we made it to the moon, maybe soon we will land on Mars. It is our duty to continue to fight and to believe, as our heroes did once before, letting equality, justice and peace guide us….to a white-painted world!

Thank you.

Maria Leonor Bento 12º A

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“The Keyword? – Integrity.” by Leonor Bento – Discurso apresentado na Competição Nacional no British Council

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Foto de Rosa Walpole, Leonor no Salão Nobre do British Council, Lisbon

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen

 

The Second World War, the end of colonialism, our own Revolution of 1974, the Arab Spring – what have all these world events have in common? – That’s right. You’ve guessed it – people wanted to live in a democracy, they wanted to live better, to see their human rights respected, they wanted to live in peace, they wanted future generations to have a future, a good future. So how can we explain the turmoil our world is in today?

Churchill once said that democracy is the worst form of government, except for all others.  Is it possible, then, to improve this form of government in order to create a fairer society?

In my speech today I’d like to show you that democracy is like a code and the keyword to crack this code is integrity. – Integrity is like a master key that opens all doors and grants access to the reality of true values, which will guide the young adults of today in planning a successful future.

For me, integrity represents quality or wholesomeness and is therefore a synonym for honesty, righteousness, impartiality. Integrity is a fundamental value, but, unfortunately, it is often ignore nowadays. I can actually say that the abyss between what many people say and what they do is something I consider worthy of study, be it in economy, politics, education or science, as the consequences of this abyss are dire for all humanity as we have been witnessing recently.

Integrity is challenging and difficult to practice in a world full of misunderstandings and conflicting values. In order to help you understand my point of view and successfully share what I believe in, I leave you with a few questions for reflection:

* Are our actions in agreement with what we say?

* Are we the type that says “do what I say, but don’t do what I do” ?

* Can we listen more than we talk and respect other people’s point of view?

Well, to be a person with integrity, we cannot fluctuate according to the moment or the situation in which we find ourselves, just to satisfy our own interests. In doing so we wouldn’t be respecting the law, rules or regulations that apply to our lives and to our society, and very likely we would be harming those around us. Such actions and behavior would – or should not leave us at peace with our conscience. Living in democracy is living on equal terms with our fellow citizens.

As a young citizen who wants to contribute to the transformation of this world that calls itself “modern”, I feel the need to leave behind the hype imposed by this consumerist, seductive and highly competitive society of ours, and I refuse to become an untrustworthy person, who only thinks of others as competitors. I definitely will not erect barriers all around me, which would generate a real island, and make me think I don’t need anyone to achieve my goals. – I want to share my goals with all the other citizens. To that end, I once again advise the correct utilization of the keyword – integrity.

This keyword creates ties, builds bridges, leads to excellence, requires sharing life experiences and challenges and these are what will bring about universal peace, love, respect, freedom, humility, equality. These are simple words but very important values that don’t interfere with religion, with origin, with color or level of education. These values make me realize that integrity depends on the obvious and provides us with happiness.

After reading a scientific article from Harvard University, I concluded that happy people are 85% more productive than unhappy people. This makes me think about my own and other people’s attitudes, opinions, decisions and values. I want to opt for joy and not surrender to sadness and concern, so I will never forget the keyword: INTEGRITY.

Integrity is the keyword to unravel the intricacies of democracy and make it the best form of government for all people, in all nations, in our entire world. Integrity is my hero.

Let’s worship a hero – let our hero be integrity.

 

Thank you.

Sílvia Ramadas, Departamento de Línguas, Agrupamento de Inglês

“The various shades of integrity” by Inês Pereirinha – Discurso apresentado na Competição Nacional no British Council, Lisboa

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Foto de Rosa Walpole, Inês Pereirinha no Salão Nobre do British Council

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen

(smiling)

Grandparents are wonderful, aren’t they? They tell us the most wonderful stories and we learn so much from them. My grandfather once told me that the first English word he had learnt, when he was about 6, was the word STOP. Of the thousands and thousands of words in the English vocabulary – (as if asking him personally) why that particular word, Grandpa? (short pause)

 He explained –(short pause) many years ago the international authorities thought it was a good idea that the stop road sign was made universal, irrespective of the country or the language people spoke. It was a question of safety first. So, on the roads of our Portuguese speaking country there appeared this road sign in English indicating stop – and all drivers, despite many of them not speaking a word of English, were left in no doubt as to what this sign meant – (short pause) STOP or accept the consequences. That was the rule –(short pause) ( with emphasis; pronouncing every word clearly and slowly) the unequivocal rule. (short pause)

In my speech today – I’d like to show you that, quite unlike our road sign and its unambiguous meaning, integrity has many meanings, it can have many interpretations, and that’s why it does need rules. Even if we all stand by our values and by what we believe in, we can’t ignore the fact that values differ from person to person, from culture to culture.

Let me come to my first argument – everywhere we go, there are rules, if we are in a classroom we have to be quiet and if we´re not, we get expelled from it. Even in this competition, we have rules – this is a five-minute speech, not a 2 or 3-minute speech, otherwise we’ll lose points, nor is it a 6 or 7-minute speech, otherwise (looking towards David Evans, smiling) this gentleman sitting at this desk will tell you – in no uncertain terms – to finish your speech, – whether you have come to the end of your argument or not. So this is how society rules, – with rules. (short pause) Why would integrity be any different?

Secondly, if we say that integrity has no need of rules then we are saying to all people that what they believe in is true and they should keep fighting for what they believe in and by doing that you´re pretty much telling a terrorist to keep killing innocent people because that´s what they stand for. We just can´t stand for what we want, we have to stand for what is right, (short pause; stressing the word universally) what is universally right. We are a global village, are we not? So we should share global values.

If a classroom has rules, it becomes a quiet place where learning can take place, where everyone respects everyone else, and if it doesn´t then it will be a chaotic mess and we, world citizens, don´t want our world to be a chaotic mess, a place where human dignity is ignored, where so much suffering is inflicted by some human beings on other human beings.

That´s why rules are needed. By applying rules to integrity, our freedom of speech may be reduced, – yes – but if that´s what it takes to keep everyone safe then it’s a price worth paying.

Thirdly there´s also the case of physical integrity. If we say that integrity has no need of rules, we are saying that it is okay for anyone to insult someone or even put other people’s lives at risk, just because they are (listing different things, so stressing each one clearly) poor, or fat, or old, or low achievers, or need a wheelchair to move about, or are destitute refugees fleeing from war, destruction, death. (short pause)

To quote Thomas Jefferson,- nobody can acquire honour and integrity by doing what is wrong. So we need rules to enable everybody,- no matter what language they speak,- what religion they profess,- no matter where they come from or where they are going to – we need rules to make sure everybody is able to tell right from wrong and to choose what is right.

Rules and the responsibilities they entail are the ties that bind us. The safety of every world citizen is of paramount importance. As Edward Kennedy once said, integrity is the lifeblood of democracy – so let universally, democratically defined rules be the underpinning principle of our world democracy.

Ladies and gentlemen,- I’ve shown you that integrity has many meanings. I’ve also shown you how important it is that we have rules – (slowly, stressing every word clearly) universally shared rules – to define and to set the boundaries of what integrity means – what is allowed and not allowed, – what is honourable and not acceptable, – what is righteous and downright immoral.

If we want to preserve our most precious jewel – (with emphasis; speaking clearly) our human dignity – rules cannot be ruled out.

(short pause)

Thank you.

Sílvia Ramadas, Departamento de Línguas, Agrupamento de Inglês

 

“Will corruption be our downfall?” by Ana Antunes – Discurso apresentado na Competição Nacional no British Council

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Foto de Rosa Walpole, Ana Antunes no Salão Nobre do British Council, Lisboa

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.

 

Abraham Lincoln once said that Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power. I do agree with Lincoln on this. You only need to look at what is happening in our world today to realize that the most corrupting thing in the world is power.

Nowadays, we live in a world where almost everywhere we can see people complaining about how corrupt their political systems are. These situations happen mostly because the voters trust the integrity and honesty of the people they choose to be their governors.

But how can we trust someone’s integrity if there are so many interpretations of the word integrity?

For example, being a person of integrity means, among other things, always thinking about everyone and trying one’s best to make decisions so as not to harm anyone who doesn’t have anything to do with those decisions. But for many politicians all over the world, being a person of integrity can be mean trying their best to have always more and more power and money, even if they have to short-change the taxpayers. Greed is the means to an end. People who pursue a greedy life try to inflate their egos and perceive the value of their lives by measuring it against financial gain.

 Unlike many years ago when this only seemed to happen in the developing countries, today it seems to happen in most countries, whether they are democracies or not. –Amazing, don’t you think? Corruption is not only stealing money from taxpayers, corruption is also hiding important information from us, the taxpayers, such as how our taxes are used.

Corruption is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit, and integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral values and principles.

So, for corruption not to be the reason of our downfall, we need to make sure that honesty and moral principles, also known as integrity, are prevalent at all times and in all dealings between people, regardless of the position they hold. Integrity goes hand in hand with honesty, and for there to be honesty, people have to be accountable for their actions.

 Our present difficulties are mostly of our own creation, so we need to regulate integrity in order to safeguard the rights of every single citizen and put an end to corruption which generates inequality and deprivation.

It’s my belief that integrity has to be defined by rules to prevent these situations in our government and society in general, otherwise we will eventually succumb to a financial crisis and maybe to our own downfall.

The point I want to make is that freedom and democracy are perfectly reconcilable with obedience to the rules, as long as these rules are democratically set up and they safeguard that which we honestly and conscientiously as a nation believe to be for the permanent interests of our country and all its citizens.

In many cases power doesn’t corrupt people, people corrupt power and use their privileged positions to make personal gains. Corruption is perhaps the greatest threat to our liberal societies and it is every citizen’s duty to unite against corruption. If we do, we will have more chances to put a stop to it and create a better, fairer society.

 We cannot let corruption be our downfall as a nation.

So, I appeal to you – let’s not waste any more time arguing about what a good, honest citizen should be. Be one. Our nation is counting on you.

Thank you.

Sílvia Ramadas, Departamento de Línguas, Agrupamento de Inglês

 

 

 

Are online games good or bad for teenagers?

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Imagem retirada da Net

Online games are a new type of gaming that teenagers use as a means to escape reality. As everything else, online games also have advantages and consequences. But the most important thing to know is if online games are good or bad influences to teenagers.

Online gaming can be very relaxing after a day at school and, being more interactive than the TV, it allows students to connect with English more actively, this being a good way to learn vocabulary and improve reading skills.

However, teens get too attached to these games, losing precious time on the computer, becoming addicted to this never ending fun. This leads to loss of interest in school and creates negative effects on the results. Also many of the vocabulary they learn in these games is of violent or insulting nature, which is bad.

But other advantages of the online games are improvements it does on teens’ memory, reflexes, logical thinking and reaction time. Patience and endurance are also exercised as teenagers struggle to finish the game, gaining confidence as they do so.

The confidence level of the player can, however, diminish when there’s a part that they can’t go through, influencing the confidence in real world situations. Also, the player will lose touch with the outside world, spending less time exercising or with friends and family. It causes antisocial behavior.

In the end, we can understand that maybe the cons outweigh the pros but it depends on the amount of time a person spends on gaming. If it’s too much, it is bad. If it’s just a little bit after arriving home from school it doesn’t hurt. So, if you plan on becoming an online gamer, just try to regulate your time accordingly. And don’t forget that school is more important than gaming.

Raquel Cabrita

 10º A

Mike Tyson

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Michael Gerard Tyson was born on the 30th June, 1966 in New York. He was married three times and has eight children, one deceased.

Mike Tyson had a difficult childhood until 11 going to a reformatory for young offenders, where he began boxing motivated by the director, a former boxer. At thirteen he was discovered. He managed to become world champion Olympic middleweight, champion youth boxing in the U.S.A. and junior world champion. In 1985, he gave up his move to professional boxing, winning the world heavyweight title aged just 20 and reached two more world titles the following year. In the 90s gave up his decay. He lost his titles, was accused of rape and consequently, sentenced to six years in prison, serving only three years for good behavior. In prison he converted to Islam. Served his sentence, he returned to combat and in 1996 came the famous fight with Holyfield, where Tyson bites his adversary in the ear in the fight, leading to his disqualification and consequently his removal from competition for a year, never getting back to his status as ideal boxer.

Mike Tyson fought 58 times. 50 Wins (44 knockouts, 5 decisions, 1 disqualification), 6 Losses, 0 Draws, 2 Dropouts.

 Teresa Maia     11ºA

Winston Churchill

 

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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War (WWII). He is widely regarded as one of the great wartime leaders. He served as Prime Minister twice (1940–45 and 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, writer and an artist. To date, he is the only British Prime Minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and the first person to be recognized as an honorary citizen of the United States.

Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led Britain to victory against the Axis powers. Churchill was always noted for his speeches, which became a great inspiration to the British people, as well as to the embattled Allied forces.

In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorization granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States, but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony due to his medical conditions. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill. He died at his home nine days later, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his father’s death.

Rodrigo Rodrigues   11º A

Michael Jordan

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Michael Jeffrey Jordan born on February 17, 1963 is a former American professional basketballplayer, active businessman and majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats. His biography on the National Basketball Association(NBA) website states, “By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time.” Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation.

After a standout career at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he led the Tar Heels to a National Championship in 1982, Jordan joined the NBA’s Chicago Bulls in 1984. He quickly emerged as a league star, entertaining crowds with his prolific scoring. He also gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball.

In 1991, he won his first NBA championship with the Bulls, and followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a “three-peat“. Although Jordan abruptly retired from basketball at the beginning of the 1993–94 NBA season to pursue a career in baseball, he rejoined the Bulls in 1995 and led them to three additional championships (1996, 1997, and 1998). Jordan retired for a second time in 1999, but returned for two more NBA seasons in 2001 as a member of the Washington Wizards.

Jordan’s individual accolades and accomplishments include five MVP awards, ten All-NBA First Team designations, nine All-Defensive First Team honors, fourteen NBA All-Star Game appearances, three All-Star Game MVP awards, ten scoring titles, three steals titles, six NBA Finals MVP awards, and the 1988 NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award. He holds the NBA records for highest career regular season scoring average (30.12 points per game) and highest career playoff scoring average (33.45 points per game). In 1999, he was named the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century by ESPN. He was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame on April 6, 2009 and was inducted on September 11, 2009.

Jordan is also noted for the success of Nike’s Air Jordan sneakers, which were introduced in 1985 and remain popular today. Jordan also starred in the 1996 feature film Space Jam as himself. He recently won a bidding war to buy controlling interest in the team from founding owner Robert L. Johnson.

 

Rui Rodrigues    11ºA

Charles Darwin

 

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Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, in the town of Shrewsbury in England. He died on April 19, 1882, in the town of Down, England.

Charles Darwin’s book The Origin of Species was a scientific bombshell in its day and remains a much-discussed work 150 years later. Darwin was the official naturalist aboard the British ship H.M.S. Beagle during its world voyage of 1831-36. His observations during the journey led him to develop a theory of evolution: the notion that species evolve as the fittest members survive and pass their traits on to future generations. Darwin announced his initial ideas of natural selection in 1858, and in 1859 he formally published The Origin of Species. The book was both popular and controversial. Although Darwin was a religious man himself and once considered a career in the church, his theory of evolution was attacked by those who felt it was contrary to the teachings of the Bible. Today Darwin’s theories are embraced by nearly all scientists and his theories are the starting point for the modern study of evolutionary biology, even as the religious arguments continue. Darwin published many other books and pamphlets on the topic in later years, most notably The Descent of Man (1871).

 

Neuza Fernandes       11º A